Friday, March 13, 2020
HRM practices worlwide Essays HRM practices worlwide Essay HRM practices worlwide Essay Building the National HR Competency Model: The four pillars of Professionalism By Marius Meyer, CEO: SA Board for People Practices (SABPP) Last month we introduced you to the new national HR Competency Model of the SA Board for People Practices (SABPP). As the HR standards-setting and professional body for HR, the aim of the model is to set a national standard for HR competence, and to provide HR professionals with a common framework for developing the required competencies in meeting the national standard. The model recognises that HR professionals are at different levels, specialisations and stages in their careers, et a common framework is intended to provide focus, consistency and development opportunities. SA Board for People Practices www. sabpp. co. za The competency model consists of three broad competence areas: 1 . The four pillars of professionalism form the square shape of the house as the foundation for professional HR practice. 2. Five core competencies needed by HR professionals to do high quality HR work constitute the building blocks. 3. Five HR capabilities required to ensure strategic HR impact form the roof. In this article we focus on the pillars of professionalism, i. e. duty to society, ethics, rofessionalism, as well as HR and Business knowledge. The central argument is that for HR to have an impact at the strategic and governance levels of organisations, we first need to get the basics right, not only to be regarded as true professionals, but also to develop our competence at the basic entry level where any profession gains stature and credibility, as the foundation of competence in any profession. PILLARS OF HR PROFESSIONALISM Drawing on the doctoral study by Penny Abbott at the University of Johannesburg, and masters dissertation of Huma van Rensburg at the University of Pretoria, but eworked as part of the new national HR competency model, the four pillars of HR professionalism form the foundation of the HR Competency Model: 2 Duty to society: Penny Abbott highlighted the socio-economic role of HR in society. HR professionals have a duty to society in delivering high quality HR work that has an impact on society. As professionals it is our duty to ensure that employers comply with labour and other relevant legislation and codes of good practice. We also need to be the custodians for good people practices in organisations, and ensure that people are treated fairly, and with respect and dignity. Furthermore, HR competence in driving effective transformation, skills development, sustainability and BBBEE interventions contributes significantly in fulfilling our duty to society. In addition, meeting or exceeding international labour standards such as the guidelines of the International Labor Organization epitomises our commitment and duty to society. On the negative side, but consistent with the standards and approaches used by other professional bodies, SABPP needs to ensure that registered HR professionals who do not meet professional and ethical standards are scrapped from the HR register of rofessionals. In this way, we fulfill our duty to society by protecting society (employees, employers and broader society) against unprofessional and unethical practitioners. Ethics: HR professionals should contribute to ethics in organisations and drive ethics in accordance with the SABPP Ethical Code and HR Guide on Ethics. Hence, competence in the area of ethics enables HR professionals to support management teams in meeting the ethical requirements of the King Ill Code on Governance for South Africa, as well as the requirements of the Companies Act. On he one hand, we need to behave ethically as HR professionals and meet our own national professional code of ethics irrespective of where we do HR work. On the other hand, HR professionals have to play a proactive role in driving ethics and values within their organisations in accordance with the espoused values and principles of their companies. Thus, HR professionals become champions of ethics, integrity and honesty in the workplace. The real test of HR competence in the area of ethics is whether we can challenge and influence management in creating an ethical alues-driven organisational culture. Professionalism: HR professionals should manage themselves professionally in acting and behaving like true professionals in the standard of HR work they deliver. Competence as a professional constitutes two areas of competency, i. e. etting the basics of professionalism right, and secondly to provide professional approaches to HR problems and issues in the workplace. The ability to analyse problems in a professional and systematic way, and to deliver professionalism is all about. The basics of professionalism are to get the few ssential professional work skills right, for example doing your homework about an issue, preparing a high quality professional report or presentation, and providing appropriate feedback and measurements abou t the solutions implemented. HR and Business knowledge: HR professionals must have good HR and sound business knowledge if they want to be successful as professionals and strategic partners. HR professionals need sound HR knowledge of all aspects of HR, from HR planning and recruitment, right through to exit strategies. While functional experts such as organisation development or remuneration specialists require in-depth nowledge of their specialist areas, all HR generalists need to have sound knowledge of all HR functions in order to deliver integrated HR solutions. In 3 addition to HR knowledge, HR professionals must possess business knowledge to ensure alignment between HR work and the needs of the business. Therefore, the importance of sound business acumen to enable and compliment the execution of professional HR work can not be over-emphasised. CONCLUSION The new SABPP HR Competency model sets the benchmark for HR professionalism in the modern South African work environment. Considering the four pillars outlined in this article, one could say that our duty to society forms the foundation of the HR competency house. In essence, our duty to society compels us to answer the question: What difference do we make as HR professionals to our organisations and the society in which we operate? Ethics and professionalism are the walls. If the foundation and walls are not strong, the house will fall down. Furthermore, HR and business knowledge is the ceiling of the house, thus acquiring sound HR and business knowledge opens up opportunities for HR professionals to move to the trategic level of the HR house, i. e. the roof. Ultimately, all professions are guided by similar pillars, although the context differs from profession to profession. Building the HR profession on a strong foundation and grounded in the four pillars, HR professional competence does not only resolve around the need for getting its own house in order, it also positions HR at a comparable level of competence to other professions. However, our credibility as HR professionals will depend on our ability to continuously develop our competence in the four pillars of the HR profession in order o raise to the level of excellence expected from our stakeholders. Acknowledgements: SABPP acknowledges the masters dissertation of Huma van Rensburg completed at Johannesburg as the conceptual background to this article. We thank Alan Hosking for publishing the model in the countrys top HR magazine, HR Future. For more information about HR Future, go to www. hrfuture. net and for more information about SABPP, visit www. sabpp. co. za Comments about the new HR Competency model are very welcome and will be used for further refinement and development, please send your views to [emailprotected] co. za. 4
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Ishmael - Essay Example The idea is to have the government forces the citizens into the idea of having no personal property until they are used to it, then the government can dissolve. The problem that Ishmael is discussing is that people are trying to fix a system within a prison, but no matter what, being in that prison will prevent any perfection of any system. This system that is being referred to is society. What is basically being argued throughout the book is that it does not matter how hard people attempt to fix the system, it will inevitably fail because it is still within the prison. More aptly put, society is the prison and the system at the same time that we are trying to fix. There are various reasons that we will be unable to fix society. The book defines two concepts which are important to understand why society cannot be fixed. The first is Takers, which refers to people of the heritage from the agricultural revolution. The second is Leavers, which refers to people who those of other non-Taker cultures, which might be referred to as primitive. The character Ishmael states that it is because Takers view themselves as being responsible and in charge of other species. Because Takers are not perfect, omnipotent beings, there is no way for them to be able to discern what should actually be done in regards to other species. This is basically why our society will not work, and the view put forward by the book is that society will continue to be ineffective to the point that it will wipe out the Takers, the very thing that it was supposed to have been set up to save in the first place. This is ultimately what the quote means. To mention communism again, state-mandated redistribution of wealth is not going to work, according to Ishmael. It is simply an attempt to construct the system in such a way as to perfect the system, but of course as
Sunday, February 9, 2020
Child Care Care for Babies - Essay Example They are not comfortable with the idea of two caregivers having to attend a minimum of ten babies at the same time. Thinking of the direct relationship between the baby's mood swings and a caregiver's mood swings makes them forecast possibility of a caregiver's outburst of frustrations and inability to fulfill task. The scene just can't be concluded yet if all of the ten babies will cry at the same time. The couple needs to work and they are only able to do that when they are secure in their knowledge that their children are safe and in good hands. It will be unwise or unfair to expect a clone of the parent. However we can respond to the worries by convincing them that the caregiver is a decent and kind individual. To give them a good outlook of the care the center is providing they will be given an opportunity to interview the caregivers at a preset time to satisfy their parent's instincts. In this way the parents will be able to personally describe the routines of the baby and caring schemes for their child apart from what was listed in the enrolment form. The act will give them comfort that they have personally clarified in detail the baby's management and care in question.
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Two Weeks Notice Essay Two weeks notice Bullock plays Lucy Kelson, a committed left-wing attorney with an immaculate Ivy League background who fights the good fight against the heartless developers of lower Manhattan and the outer boroughs. Complications ensue when she finds herself working for one such figure, George Wade (Grant) in exchange for his preserving a Coney Island landmark near her childhood home. Wades not a bad guy, but hes frightfully dependent on Lucy for everything. When it seems possible she might at last get clear of him, she begins to have second thoughts about letting him go. The Movie Two Weeks Notice stares Saundra Bullock and Hugh Grant premiered in December of 2002. The movie follows a mix match relationship between a strong willed, save the community lawyer named Lucy Kelson, played by Sandra Bullock, and a high status business man, George Wade, played by Hugh Grant. The two in the beginning seem completely different but when Lucy goes to work for George, to keep him from knocking down the neighborhood community center, she realizes how needy he was, and how much she couldnt stand it. When Lucy gives George two weeks notice, George realizes that she is an asset to his company. After much arguing she finally gets out and then they both realize that theyve fallen in love with each other. Since they were too stubborn to admit it, it took a huge argument in the employee lounge to get them to let their guards down. Writer and first time Director, Marc Lawrences Two Weeks Notice is a charming, smart, and genuinely funny romantic comedy with terrific performances by Sandra Bullock and Hugh Grant. This a great movie. Inherent in romantic comedies is a degree of predictibility. Two Weeks Notice follows formula, but Lawrence orchestrates enough curves, character insight, and human resonance to make it more than just formula. He also has the great chemistry of Bullock and Grant this is their medium. Sandra Bullock plays Lucy Kelson, a Harvard educated activist lawyer, who is hired by George Wade (Hugh Grant)a handsome, charming, and seemingly shallow multi-millionaire develo per. George hires Lucy as chief legal counsel for Wade Corp. , for $250 K, because his brother Howard (David Haig), the true captain of Wade Corp. requested George hire an attorney who did not attend Bimbo U. Lucy swallows her idealism and poverty, because George also promises to protect her parents community center. Lucy is smart and not intentionally funny, and soon becomes Georges right and left arm he cant to anything without her consult. This only amplifies that Lucy has no life or rather any relationships of merit other than with George. Lucy gives George her Two Weeks Notice. Credit Lawrence and company, when George finally accepts Lucys resignation, it is crystal regarding the unspoken relationship of the two. Wink. Wink. Two Weeks never insults our intelligence, however, it makes us await for an hour and a half. Along with wit and humor Lawrence, Bullock, and Grant provide a a very human touch that resonates throughout the movie. In a very well done scene on the rooftop of Lucys parents New York apartment, Lucy shares with George that she never lived upto her mothers expectations. George says that is different from people having no expectations. This is where movie transforms beyond the opposites attract story. It makes sense of Lucys need to be perfect, and the man that George could be that he is well aware of. In its own light hearted way, Two Weeks looks at where you sell out, where do you become a whore (but in a nice way), and where do you take a stand. And taking a stand is never easy even in a romantic comedy, though it sometimes takes longer. Sandra Bullock and Hugh Grant are magic together. They are both smart and their characters are also. Grant as George is charming, witty, and playing someone who has honor and substance that are dimissed by all except Lucy (Bullock). Grant is masterful at hinting at a depth of character. Sandra Bullock is beautiful, smart, and funny as Lucy. She also stretches herself when Lucy drunkenly braggs about her sexual prowess bobcat pretsel thing. Bullock lends compassion and a whacky sensibilty to Lucy who scares men off by being too smart and too perfect, but still not good enough for her mother. Her Lucy only gets a clue when she hires her replacement (a good Alicia Witt) she is in love with George. The exchanges between Grant and Bullock are so natural like conversation, spoken and unspoken. At one point in the movie, Lucy has a breakfast conversation with her Dad (a goofy and wise Robert Klein). She asks him What if people dont change? The point is they will or they dont. Kind of like loving someone is accepting them for who they are and for who they are not. Be open to surprises. Marc Lawrences Two Weeks Notice is an excellent surprise. He along with Bullock and Grant have made a classic romantic comedy and more. Hugh Grant plays George Wade, a property developer who hires Lucy Kelson (Sandra Bullock) as his Chief Counsel. Sick of calls in the middle of the night and appalled at being called away from a wedding just to help her boss decide what to wear for a particular occasion, Lucy gives George two weeks notice. Ã¢â¬ËTwo Weeks Notice is little more than a predictable romantic comedy and it is only a matter of time before George and Lucy realise that they have fallen for each other. How the film turns out is obvious, but this will not spoil your enjoyment of it. Sandra Bullock fails to convince as a successful lawyer and businesswoman but she is able to convey a vulnerability which makes the audience warm to her. Like her character in Ã¢â¬ËWhile You Were Sleeping, Lucy is a lonely individual. When she is at home she comfort eats Chinese food, always ordering just for one. There are also no surprises with Hugh Grants character as he is much the same as any of his other romantic roles i. e. very likeable and charming. The film succeeds purely because of the actors likeability and the on-screen chemistry between Hugh Grant and Sandra Bullock who are both gifted comedic actors. There are also enough good lines and funny situations to keep you chuckling throughout
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Small Business, Non-profit Organizations, and E-commerce Small business firms and non-profit organizations can seize the opportunities that the Internet offers. The number of Internet users worldwide exceeded 150 million in 1999, and this number is expected to quadruple in a few years. These users are a vast market for organizations offering products or services on web sites. Firms such as Amazon.com and eBay have exploited this market, growing from nothing to giants in less than a decade. Naturally, many small firms want to get in on the action by establishing their own web sites. Other organizations, such as professional associations, want to use web sites to recruit members and create an Internet presence enhancing both their members' reputation and marketability. What is the best way for them to proceed? A boutique might be very competent at acquiring clothes that float off the rack. Each professional member of a not-for-profit association might co-ordinate the activities of hundreds of people. However, designing, constructing, maintai ning, and managing an Internet site requires technical expertise and capital these organizations don't necessarily have. Can the government assist by providing information and financing to organizations wanting to enter cyberspace (Canada, Western Economic Diversification)? To compete with the big players on the Internet, small businesses and non-profits, with help from the government, can contract with experienced web-consulting firms to supply the programming and computer skills to ensure delivery of a web site for a reasonable price. Although primarily an economic phenomenon, electronic commerce forms part of a broader process of social change, characterized by the globalisation of markets, the shift towards an economy based on knowledge and information, and the growing prominence of all forms of technology in everyday life (OECD Economic 143). The Internet has hastened the globalization of markets. A few decades ago, only the multi-national corporations sold products worldwide. "Today, for a few thousand dollars, anyone can become a merchant and reach millions of consumers world-wide" (OECD Economic 10). Unfortunately, Canadian small businesses are not embracing e-commerce as ardently as American firms. Many domestic firms have neither the investment capital nor the technical knowledge to seize the opportunities the Internet offers. Consequently, Canadian firms lag behind American firms. While the American economy is ten times larger than Canada's, American venture capital investment in the Internet was 36 times larger last year ("E-business Acceleration"). Although the Canadian government is making an effort to encourage e-commerce (Canada, Industry Canada, The Canadian Electronic), some firms paid exorbitant prices for e-commerce sites that are not profitable because they lacked accurate information on the cost of constr ucting web sites.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Test BankÃ¢â¬âChapter One (Data Representation) Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following Boolean operations produces the output 1 for the fewest number of input patterns? A. ANDB. ORC. XOR ANSWER: A 2. Which of the following best describes the NOR operation? A. An XOR followed by a NOTB. An OR followed by a NOT C. A NOT followed by a NOTC. An AND followed by a NOT ANSWER: B 3. Which of the following bit patterns cannot be expressed in hexadecimal notation? A. 11111111B. 1001C. 110011D. 100000000001 ANSWER: C 4. Which of the following is the binary representation of 4 5/8? A. 100. 11B. 10. 11C. 110. 101D. 100. 101 ANSWER: D 5. Which of the following bit patterns represents the value 5 in twoÃ¢â¬â¢s complement notation? A. 00011010B. 11111011C. 00000101D. 11111011 ANSWER: C 6. Which of the following bit patterns represents the value -5 in twoÃ¢â¬â¢s complement notation? A. 00011010 B. 11111011C. 00000101 D. 11111011 ANSWER: D 7. In which of the following addition prob lems (using twoÃ¢â¬â¢s complement notation) does an overflow error occur? A. 0011 B. 0100 C. 1100 + 1010 + 0100 + 1100 ANSWER: B 8. Which of the following representations in twoÃ¢â¬â¢s complement notation represents the largest value?A. 00000010B. 11111111C. 00000001D. 11111110 ANSWER: A 9. Which of the following bit patterns (represented in hexadecimal notation) represents a negative number in twoÃ¢â¬â¢s complement notation? A. 7FB. 55C. A6D. 08 ANSWER: C 10. What value is represented by the bit pattern 01011100 when interpreted using floating-point format in which the most significant bit is the sign bit, the next three bits represent the exponent field in excess notation, and the last four bits represent the mantissa? A. -1 1/2 B. 1 1/2C. -3/8 D. 3/8 ANSWER: B 11.Which of the following values cannot be stored accurately using a floating-point format in which the most significant bit is the sign bit, the next three bits represent the exponent field in excess notation, and th e last four bits represent the mantissa? A. 2 1/2B. 3/16C. 7D. 6 1/4 ANSWER: D 121. Which of the following bit-patterns represents the smallest value using the floating-point format in which the most significant bit is the sign bit, the next three bits represent the exponent field in excess notation, and the last four bits represent the mantissa? A. 01001000B. 1011000C. 00101000D. 01111000 ANSWER: C 13. Which of the following data storage systems provides the most efficient random access to individual data items? A. Main memoryB. Magnetic diskC. Optical CDs and DVDs ANSWER: A 14. Which of the following storage systems is best suited for storing and retrieving long strings of data that are processed in their sequential order? A. Main memoryB. Magnetic diskC. Optical CDs and DVDs ANSWER: C 15. Which of the following mass storage system does not require physical motion? A. Magnetic tapeB. Magnetic diskC. DVDsD. Flash drives ANSWER: D 16.Assuming that each of the following bit patterns originally had even parity, which one contains an error? A. 10110100B. 11000011C. 00011000 D. 10001001 ANSWER: D 17. How many errors per pattern could be corrected when using an error-correcting code in which any two code patterns differ by a Hamming distance of 8? A. 3B. 4C. 5D. 6 ANSWER: A 18. Which of the following is a possible LZW compression of the message Ã¢â¬Å"xyz xyz xyzÃ¢â¬ ? A. 1234B. 1234545C. 232D. 12 ANSWER: B 19. How many different symbols can be encoded using Unicode? A. 256B. 4,096C. 65,536D. 1,046,476 ANSWER: C 20.Which of the following systems is least efficient when encoding numeric values? A. TwoÃ¢â¬â¢s complement notationB. Excess notation C. ASCIID. Floating-point notation ANSWER: C 21. Which of the following is a means of encoding music? A. ASCIIB. MIDIC. JPEGD. GIF ANSWER: B Fill-in-the-blank/Short-answer Questions 1. A computerÃ¢â¬â¢s main memory consists of numerous memory cells, each of which contains ________ bits. Each memory cell is identified b y a numeric value called the cellÃ¢â¬â¢s _________. ANSWER: eight, address 2. Represent the bit pattern 1011010010011111 in hexadecimal notation. ________ ANSWER: B49F 3. A7DF is the hexadecimal representation for what bit pattern? ____________ ANSWER: 1010 0111 1101 1111 4. How many different bit patterns can be formed if each must consist of exactly 6 bits? ____________ ANSWER: 64 5. Translate each of the following binary representations into its equivalent base ten representation. A. 1100__________ B. 10. 011__________ C. 0. 01 __________ D. 10001__________ ANSWER: A. 12 B. 2 3/8 C. 1/4 D. 17 6. Rewrite each of the following values (represented in base ten notation) in binary notation. A. 7__________B. 23__________ C. 2 1/4 __________ D. 5/8__________ ANSWER: A. 111 B. 10111 C. 10. 01 D. 0. 101 7. If the patterns 101. 11 and 1. 011 represent values in binary notation, what is the binary representation of their sum? ____________ ANSWER: 111. 001 8. Using a twoÃ¢â¬â¢s complemen t notation system in which each value is represented by a pattern of six bits, represent the value 3. ____________ ANSWER: 000011 9. Using a twoÃ¢â¬â¢s complement notation system in which each value is represented by a pattern of six bits, represent the value -3. ____________ ANSWER: 111101 10.What is the largest positive integer that can be represented in a twoÃ¢â¬â¢s complement system in which each value is represented by eight bits? ____________ ANSWER: 127 (represented by 01111111) 11. In a twoÃ¢â¬â¢s complement system, what value is represented by the pattern 11111111111111001? ____________ ANSWER: -7 12. When using twoÃ¢â¬â¢s complement notation, what bit pattern represents the negation of 01101010? ____________ ANSWER: 10010110 13. What value is represented by each of the following patterns in excess notation? A. 10000 ____ B. 0110 ____ C. 1011 ____ ANSWER: A. 0, B. -2, C. 14. Using an 8-bit floating-point format in which the most significant bit is the sign bit, the next three bits represent the exponent field in excess notation, and the last four bits represent the mantissa, write the bit pattern that represents the value 1 3/4. (Use normalized form. ) ____________ ANSWER: 01011110 15. What is the largest value that can be represented in a floating-point system in which each value is encoded by a byte whose most significant bit is the sign bit, the next three bits represent the exponent field in excess notation, and the last four bits represent the mantissa? ___________ ANSWER: 7 1/2 (represented as 01111111) 16. Which of the following addition problems cannot be solved accurately when using a floating-point system in which each value is encoded by a byte whose most significant bit is the sign bit, the next three bits represent the exponent field in excess notation, and the last four bits represent the mantissa? A. 2 1/2 + 1 3/8B. 3 1/2 + 4 1/2C. 7 + 3/4 ____________ ANSWER: A, B, and C 17. The following is an error-correcting code in which an y two patterns differ by a Hamming distance of at least three. Symbol Representation A 000000B 001111 C 010011 D 011100 E 100110 F 101001 G 110101 H 111010 Decode each of the following patterns 010011 ________101010 ________011000 ________101101 _______ ANSWER: C, H, D, F 18. How many errors in a single code pattern could be corrected when using an error-correcting code in which each code pattern is a Hamming distance of at least seven from any other code pattern? ____________ ANSWER: 3 19. The following is a message that was originally encoded so that each pattern had odd parity. Circle the patterns in which an error has definitely occurred. 0110101 11110000 10010010 00000000 11111111 00001000 00111101 ______________________________________ ANSWER: Second, fourth, fifth, and sixth 20. Data compression techniques apply various principles to reduce the size of data. One, called _______________________, avoids repeating long strings of the same data item. Another, called _____________ __________, encodes the difference between consecutive blocks of data rather than encoding each block in its entirety. Still another, called _________________________, uses short bit patterns to encode frequently occurring items and longer patterns to encode less frequent items.ANSWER: Run-length encoding, relative encoding, and frequency-dependent encoding. Vocabulary (Matching) Questions The following is a list of terms from the chapter along with descriptive phrases that can be used to produce questions (depending on the topics covered in your course) in which the students are ask to match phrases and terms. An example would be a question of the form, Ã¢â¬Å"In the blank next to each phrase, write the term from the following list that is best described by the phrase. Ã¢â¬ TermDescriptive Phrase bitBinary digit Boolean operationAND, OR, XOR, NOT addressA numeric value used to identify a memory cell exadecimal notationAn efficient way of representing bit patterns sectorA segment of a track in a mass storage system zoned-bit recordingA means of increasing the storage capacity of a magnetic disk system bufferA storage area used to hold data on a temporary basis, often as a step in transferring the data from one device to another ISOAn international organization for establishing standards ANSIA major standardization organization within the United States ASCIIA system developed by the American Standards Institute for encoding text. lip-flopA digital circuit capable of holding a single digit twoÃ¢â¬â¢s complement notationA means of encoding whole numbers floating-point notationA means of encoding numeric values that may involve fractions truncationAn error that may occur when using floating-point notation pixelA small part of an image GIFA means of compressing an image file by restricting the number of colors availableJPEGA means of compressing images by blurring the boundaries between different colors while maintaining all brightness information UnicodeA mea ns of encoding text in which each symbol is represented by 16 bits LZWAn example of adaptive dictionary encoding MIDIA means of encoding music in terms of notes and instruments rather than actual audio Key fieldA part of a logical record in a file used to identify the record. VLSIA means of constructing complex circuitry in a very small space.General Format Questions 1. Describe how a computer can produce an incorrect answer when performing numerical computations even though it has not malfunctioned. ANSWER: Most students will probably refer to overflow and truncation errors. 2. Describe ho the concept of Hamming distance is used to produce an error-correcting code. ANSWER: By designing a code in which each pattern has a Hamming distance of n from any other pattern, patterns with fewer than n/2 errors can be corrected by replacing them with the code pattern that is closest. . a. What is the output of the circuit below? [pic] b. In general, how does the three-bit input pattern across the top of the diagram relate to the circuitÃ¢â¬â¢s output? ANSWER: a. 0 b. The output is 0 if the input parity is odd; the output is 1 if the input parity is even. 4. If the input and output bit patterns in the circuit below are interpreted as binary representations of numeric values, what operation does the circuit perform? [pic] ANSWER: The circuit subtracts one (except for the case of the input being 000). . Explain why such terms as kilobyte, megabyte, and gigabyte have acquired double meanings. ANSWER: The prefixes kilo, mega, and giga are used traditionally to refer to units measured in powers of ten. However, due to the early misuse of the prefix kilo in reference to units of the size 1024, these prefixes are now often used to refer to units that are powers of twoÃ¢â¬âespecially when referring to the capacity of main memories. 6. Convert the following addition problem into twoÃ¢â¬â¢s complement notation using four bits per value), perform the addition, convert the an swer back into base ten notation, and explain the results. 6 + 3 ANSWER: In twoÃ¢â¬â¢s complement notation the problem is to add 0110 and 0011. The sum is 1001 which translates to -7. This answer is incorrect due to overflow. 7. Under what condition is each of the following data compression techniques most effective? a. Run-length encoding b. Relative encoding ANSWER: a. Compresses most when data consists of long strings of the same entry. b.Compresses most when each block of data differs little from the previous block. 8. What is frequency-dependent encoding? ANSWER: Frequency-dependent encoding is an encoding system that uses short bit patterns to represent data items that occur most often and longer patterns to represent less frequently occurring items. The result is that entire blocks of data can be represented in less space than would be required if each data item were represented by the same size bit pattern. 9. Construct the entire twoÃ¢â¬â¢s complement scale in which eac h value is represented by three bits.ANSWER: 3 011 2 010 1 001 0 000 -1 111 -2 110 -3 101 -4 100 10. To what does the term Ã¢â¬Å"normalized formÃ¢â¬ refer in the context of floating-point notation? ANSWER: Normalized form refers to a standard for positioning the bit pattern within the mantissa field. Many values can be represented in floating-point notation by different bit patterns, only one of which is in normalized form. Hence, restricting representations to normalized form assures that each value is represented by a unique pattern. 11.Explain why the final version of the dictionary need not be transmitted with a message encoded using LZW compression. ANSWER: The dictionary can be constructed during decompression in the same way it was constructed during compression. 12. Among the Boolean operations AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, and NOT, which is least like the others? Explain your answer. ANSWER: There is not really a right or wrong answer. The studentÃ¢â¬â¢s explanation is the m ost important part. Most students will probably answer NOT because it has only one input whereas the others have two. 3. If a term paper consisted 42 pages, each containing 40 lines of 100 symbols each (counting each space as a symbol), was to be encoded using Unicode, how many bytes of storage space would be required? ANSWER: 336,000 bytes (168,000 symbols times 2 bytes per symbol) 14. Explain why adding only a few characters to a text file may increase the fileÃ¢â¬â¢s size by several hundred bytes and at other times may not increase the fileÃ¢â¬â¢s size at all. ANSWER: File space is allocated in terms of physical records, each of which is several hundred bytes in size.Thus, the size of a file grows by physical record units rather than by byte size units. 15. In a twoÃ¢â¬â¢s complement system, what value can be added to any other value without causing an overflow? How many values in the system have this property? Explain your answer. ANSWER: Adding the value 0 to any other va lue will not produce an overflow. However, if m is the largest positive integer that can be represented in the system, then any value in the range 1 to m will produce an overflow when added to m, and any value in the range -1 to -( m + 1) will produce an overflow when added to -( m + 1).
Monday, January 6, 2020
Chapter by chapter guide 1. Introduction 4 2. Cutback arranging of Holden 4 2.1Downsizing 5 2.2 Alternatives to cutting back 5 2.3 Limitations 5 2.4 Benefits of cutting back for Holden 6 3. Execution administration framework in Holden 6 3.1 Set and consistently reconsider HOLDEN Directives 7 3.2 Translate Holden Directives to Goals all through association 7 3.3 Performance appraisal 7 3.4 Training and advancement 8 3.5 Job update 8 4. Reward Management arrangement of Holden 8 4.1 Motivation 9 4.2 Job satisfaction 9 4.3 Compensation 10 4.4 Benefits to employees 10 5. Recommendations 11 6. Conclusion 12 References 13 1-Introduction: As been talked about in a board room presentation with respect to hold the workforce and the cutback arrangement of the Holden workers. Being a noteworthy assembling organization of Australia in the auto portable industry of autos, Holden serve a lot of years in Australia. In 2017, being in budgetary emergencies Holden distributing up their business from port of Melbourne in the assembling business because of which they are lay-off their representatives as low maintenance and provisional however till 2017 they need to manage with their expertise workforce to continue with their assembling in Australia. The HR office significant commitment to the maintenance of workforce by utilizing various techniques they apply diverse models to hold the ability work power with distinctive technique. The realShow MoreRelatedRetail Information System5005 Words Ã |Ã 21 PagesChapter 12 Retail Information Systems Retail Information Systems WHAT YOU W ILL LEARN Ã § What system modules and functions you should look for in purchasing a new retail system. Names, phone numbers and web site addresses for some of the best Canadian distributors of retail system software. What you can expect to pay for a state-of-the-art retail information system. How to perform Ã¢â¬Å"reference checksÃ¢â¬ when evaluating a retail system you are considering. 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